ILAC Brief 26: Making causal claims

Author: John Mayne
Publication date: 2012

An ongoing challenge in evaluation is the need to make credible causal claims linking observed results to the actions of interventions. This ILAC Brief argues the need for a different perspective on causality, where interventions are seen as contributory causes to certain results.

Making causal claims workshop 2013

Author: Mayne, J.
Publication date: 2013

This powerpoint presentation on causal contribution was part of the Workshop on Impact, Learning and Innovation, held at the Institute of Development Studies, March 2013. The presentation focuses on intervention causality and draws attention to the notion of interventions not being a single but a contributory cause to certain results. Theories of Change are offered as a model to see the intervention as a contributing cause.

The web of institutionalisation: Assessing Uptake of ToC Thinking in Hivos

This document introduces and elaborates on the notion of the 'web' of institutionalisation by Levy (1996) as part of the internal assessment by Hivos of the institutionalisation of Theory of Change thinking. It zooms in on the core elements, presented by Levy as the citizen's, policy, organizational and delivery sphere and lists guiding questions for each sphere, specifically formulated for Hivos' internal assessment.

Guidance Note 3: Theory of Change approach to climate change adaptation programming

Authors: Bours, D., McGinn, C. & Pringle, P. (for SEA Change CoP, UKCIP)
Publication date: 2014

This Guidance Note describes the Theory of Change approach and explains why it is a good fit for climate change adaptation programming. It highlights its differences with the more familiar logic model / logical framework (‘logframe’) approaches – and also shows how they can be used together.

UNICEF Methodological briefs. Impact evaluation No. 2: Theory of Change

Author: Patricia Rogers
Date: September 2014

Recognizing the importance of impact evaluation to UNICEF's work, the Office of Research - Innocenti has collaborated with  RMIT University, the International Initiative for Impact Evaluation (3ie), and BetterEvaluation to produce a series of methodological briefs and videos on the topic. The series covers the building blocks of impact evaluation, strategies for causal attribution, and different data collection and analysis methods. The focus of Impact Evaluation Brief No. 2 is on the Theory of Change (ToC).

Tags: Articles

Building Adult Capabilities to Improve Child Outcomes: A Theory of Change

This 5-minute video from the Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University depicts a theory of change from the Frontiers of Innovation community for achieving breakthrough outcomes for vulnerable children and families.

Tags: ToC Videos

UTZ's Theory of Change

UTZ Certified is a program and label for sustainable farming. Sustainable farming helps farmers, workers and their families to fulfill their ambitions and contributes to safeguarding the earth's natural resources, now and in the future. 

Tags: ToC Videos

Why people believe weird things

Why do people see the Virgin Mary on a cheese sandwich or hear demonic lyrics in "Stairway to Heaven"? Using video and music, skeptic Michael Shermer shows how we convince ourselves to believe — and overlook the facts

Tags: ToC Videos

Theory of Change: A Practical Tool For Action, Results and Learning

Author: Organizational Research Services (ORS)
Publication Date: 2004 

This publication addresses the need of every community for a roadmap for change. One recommended approach is to develop an outcome map, a visual diagram that depicts relationships between initiative strategies and intended results. This map would illustrate destinations of progress and the routes to travel on the way to achieving progress.

Tags: Articles

A Theory of Social Change and Implications for Practice, Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation

Author: Doug Reeler
Year of publication: 2007

A theory of social change is proposed through this paper as one small contribution to a larger body of theorising.  This paper can be seen as an observational map to help practitioners, whether field practitioners or donors, including the people they are attempting to assist, to read and thus navigate processes of social change.  

Tags: Articles